I. MORPHEM AND ENGLISH MORPHEM
A. Definition of Morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of a language.
B. Classification of Morpheme:
ü Free morpheme: It can stand alone and has meaning.
Example : book , table, dog, house , etc.
ü Bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme.
Inflectional vs. Derivational
These affixes do not change the word class , but rather contribute to meeting grammatical constraints.
Derivational morpheme :
These affixes change the meaning and change the word class.
To show single verb from third subject
To change the meaning of a word
From adjective >> noun
Verb >> Noun
II. MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES
A morphological process is a means of changing a stem to adjust its meaning to fit its syntactic and communicational context.
A. Kinds of Morphological Processes
Prefixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is attached to the front of a root or stem.
Suffixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is attached to the end of a base.
· Infixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme attaches within a root or stem
Reduplication is consist in the repetition of all or of part of a rootorstem to form new words.
· Consist in a complete change in the form of a root
ENGLISH WORD FORMATION
English Word Formation
• In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word.
• Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word’s meaning.
ü Types of Word Formation
Two or more words joined together to form a new word.
Example: pick + pocket = pickpocket
Conversion involves forming a new word from an existing identical one.
Example: They will the draw ( the draw = noun )
They draw a mountain ( draw = verb )
Shortening a word by deleting one or more syllables.
Example: Hamburger = burger
A blend is a word formed by joining parts of two or more older words.
Example: breakfast + lunch = brunch
5. Back formation
Back formation is word formation that removing and adding affixes from existing word.
Example: donation ( noun ) >> donate ( verb )
Words derived from the initial letters of several words and use them as a new word. Example: SWOT ( Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threath )
7. Functional Shift
Functional shift is the process that derives new words by moving the part of speech of a word and no changing of its form.
Example : He runs like a horse ( like = seperti )
They like a rose flower ( like = suka )
8. Morphological misanalysis
Morphological misanalysis is the process that derives new words by moving the part of speech of a word and no changing of its form. This can be because of actual misunderstanding, when we analyze a word that has a similar sound or words from dialog or listen a song.
Example: here >> hear
leave >> live
9. Proper Names
Many places, inventions, activities, etc, are named for persons somehow connected with them.
Example: Washington D.C , Jl. Soekarno Hatta
Words may also be created without using any of the methods described above and without employing any other word or word parts already in existence.
Example: kodak, exxon, xerox
III. MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND TYPES OF LANGUAGES
A. Morphological Structure
Language are often classified according to their morphological structure. According to the way in which they put morphemes together to form words.
B. Types of Languages
1. Analytical (Isolating) Language
Analytical Language : An analytic language is a language that conveys grammatical relationships without using inflectional affixes.
For example :
Chinese > [ Wo mɅn tyɛn tsin ] = ‘we (I- plural) are playing piano’
[ Wo mɅn tyɛn tsin lɅ ] = ‘we played the piano’ ( past tense )
Mandarin > [ ta da wo mɅn ] = ‘he hits us ( I-plural)
Synthetic Language : Synthetic language form words by given number of dependent morpheme to a root morpheme
For example of Agglutinating :
Nilisoma (Past Tense)
Nitasoma (Future Tense)
For example of Fusional :
Hablo ( ‘ablo = I ) : I am speaking
Habla ( ‘abla = he / she ) : He / she is speaking
Hable ( ‘able ) : I spoke
For example of Polysinthetic :
Chukchi (Rusia) : I have a fierce headache.
Ainu (Japan) : I wonder about various rumors.
IV. MORPHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
Morphology problems is something what we often discuss about structure words. Difficulties about word structure and not all of words combined as the rule.
1. Secara umum verb-1 langsung ditambah “-ing”
a. break -> breaking
b. learn -> learning
2. Verb yang berakhiran “e” langsung diganti dengan “-ing”.
a. force -> forcing
b. improve -> improving
3. Verb yang berakhiran “ee” langsung ditambah “-ing” tanpa menghilangkan “ee”-nya.
a. agree -> agreeing
b. see -> seeing
4. Verb yang lebih dari satu suku kata, akhir suku kata hanya ada satu vokal, dan berkahir hanya satu konsonan, maka konsonan digandakan dan ditambah “-ing”.
a. begin -> beginning
b. prefer -> preferring
Penambahan “-s” atau “-es”
1. Secara umum penambahan “s” bisa dilakukan secara langsung.
a. work -> works
b. look -> looks
2. Jika kata kerja berakhiran huruf desis (ch, c, ss, sh, x) dan o, maka kata kerjanya ditambah “-es”.
a. catch -> catches
b. go -> goes
3. Apabila kata kerja berakhiran “y” dan didahului konsonan, maka “y” berubah menjadi “i” baru ditambah “-es”.
a. carry -> carries
b. cry -> cries
4. Jika kata kerja berakhiran “y” dan didahului vokal, maka langsung saja ditambah “-s”.
a. play -> plays
b. buy -> buys
In conclusion, how to solve morphological problems divided into some steps, there are make a list of the word first based on phonetic transcription, then find the meaning each of word , after that you must categorized these words and the last we have to compare with the other languages. (awf)